Drug abuse treatment is a long and difficult process. Each addiction is specific, from one individual to another, but there are no differences in the nature of the illness. The difference can make a time when a person starts the treatment, which is related to the phase of addiction. There are two basic types of treatment, and these are inpatient and outpatient care. The first involves a hospital stay of 24 hours a day and the whole process takes place here, while the second includes treatment on an outpatient daily basis which means that the therapeutic activities (with a psychologist , psychiatrist , group) are performed in a hospital and the rest of the day is carried out at home.
The goals of treatment:
· Establishment of abstinence – This is the first and foremost objective of treatment. Only by establishing a high quality of abstinence begins the real healing process, and that is the treatment of the psyche and work to change the personality of the drug addict and the drug addict behavior.
- Reduction or fully rehabilitation of health problems resulting from drug use
- Solving social, professional and other everyday problems (problems at school, at work, etc.) Solving family problems and relationships, as well as improving the relations with the environment.
All of the above objectives are typical for all addicts and are called general objectives. Of course, the goal of treatment is not just to stop taking the drugs, but the formation of a new, stronger personality that will be able not to begin again with taking drugs when there come up bigger or smaller life problems. In other words, it means to form a new lifestyle in accordance with personal spiritual and cultural commitments and capacities.
Stages of treatment:
- Detoxification and stabilization phase
Medical detoxification is the initial and acute stage of addiction treatment with the goal of abstinence. However, the technical term “detox” refers to the complete withdrawal syndrome (neuroadaptation) as well as the state of stabilization of acute physiological and emotional symptoms that occur after discontinuation of narcotic substances.
Complete detoxification is necessary only in cases depending on the specific types of psychoactive substances, especially narcotics, opium, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines.
Indicators of success in the phase of detoxification and stabilization:
- Significant improvement of physiological and emotional state
- The absence of significant medical or psychological complications
- Integration and participation in the rehabilitation program
- Phase of rehabilitation and relapse prevention
For rehabilitation are prepared those patients who completed the acute period of the physiological and emotional consequence of abstinence and who are in need of guidance towards changing behavior and suppressing cravings for the drug. Practical goals of this stage of treatment are to prevent a return to drugs; to help the patient to suppress craving for drugs, through the maintenance of complete abstinence or through substitution treatment; and to assist patients in improving their own health and successful performance of social functions, because this form of progress in the lifestyle is important to maintain control over the use of drugs.
Indicators of success in the phase of rehabilitation and relapse prevention
- Improved physiological and emotional state
- Reduced use of narcotics
- Shaped behavior that leads to improvement in personal health, more successful functioning in society
- Lifestyle that excludes the use of drugs
Important factors in determining treatment outcome:
- The longer treatment period
- Increased motivation (financial support for attending programs and abstinence)
- Individual interviews with a personal adviser expert
- Using the services of official institutions for mental health, employment and protection of the family
- The use of medications that suppress the desire for drugs and also the effect of drugs and that reduce psychological symptoms
- Participation in the activities of self-help groups after rehabilitation